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at-large election an election in which every voter can vote for candidates to fill any and all vacant positions in a representative body. Unlike a single-member election, in which people can vote only for candidates who represent their particular legislative district, at-large elections allow every person to vote on each vacant position within a governing body.
by-election in Britain and other countries, an election held between general elections to fill a vacant seat in government.
closed primary election in the United States, a direct primary election in which voters must show evidence of their party affiliation and may vote only for candidates of the same party.
direct primary election a preliminary election in which candidates for public office are nominated by direct vote of the people. (Cf. closed primary election.)
general election a final election on the national, state, or local level to select one candidate from among those previously nominated in a primary election, at a party convention, or by some other procedure. [2 definitions]
midterm election in the U.S., an election typically featuring candidates for Congress, state legislatures, and state governors that occurs during an even-numbered year that is not a year during which a presidential election is held.
off-year election in the U.S., an election that occurs in a year other than those years during which a President is elected. [2 definitions]
singlemember election an election in which people vote for a candidate to represent their particular legislative district within a larger representative body made up of members selected by voters of various districts. National and state legislators in the United States are elected through single-member elections.